Run for your life! At a comfortable pace, and not too far: James O’Keefe at TEDxUMKC

Run for your life! At a comfortable pace, and not too far: James O’Keefe at TEDxUMKC

Translator: Herald Park
Reviewer: Denise RQ Hello, great to be here. I’m a cardiologist, but before that,
I was an exercise enthusiast. I’ve exercised, I bet,
pretty much everyday of my life. I had two grandfathers
who were alcoholics. But for me, my way
of copping with life is exercise. When I’m nervous, anxious, tired,
happy, sad, or whatever, I exercise, if I have the time,
and sometimes even when I don’t. You might have seen me
in an airport, waiting for a flight, running up the down escalator
with my backpack on, to kill 20 minutes. But I always thought that exercise was
the best thing for my heart, and I think that’s how I decided,
at age 15, I wanted to be a cardiologist. But now that I am 56 years old,
and a lot of decades have gone by, I’ve started to have a few warning sings
from my heart; a couple years ago I noticed this, and I got on a mission. I’m a research cardiologist,
and I have a research fellow. We have been working on this
for a couple years, with the help of some of the brightest
cardiologists from around the country, we came to some startling new insights
that seem to emerging about exercise. This made me think twice
about my lifestyle, and I’m worried that I may have
made a lethal mistake. I hope it’s not too late,
but let me tell you the story. So, as I said, I have been
exercising for a long time. But if we go back 2,500 years,
there is a guy named Pheidippides who ran the 26 miles from a battle field near Marathon, Greece, into Athens to proclaim the news about
a momentous victory over the Persians. When he arrived at the emperor’s throne
and said, “Victory is ours,” he abruptly collapsed and died. Now, you may have heard that story before, but what you probably didn’t know is that
Pheidippides was an accomplished runner. He’d been a Greek herald
messenger his whole life. He ran a lot of miles everyday, I bet he was the fittest guy in Athens
the day he died. That’s strange. But now let’s go forward
two millennia or more. When the Baby Boomers came of age,
another boom happened: the running boom. If exercise was good for you
as anybody could know, then more had to be better, and the ultimate test of running
and endurance was a marathon. There was a physician who became famous
back in the mid-70s by boldly proclaiming that if you could complete a marathon,
you were immune to heart attack. This urban myth actually still
holds sway with a lot of physicians. One of my patients and friends is John. He is 68 now, but he’s been
running for 45 years. As he puts it, if he hasn’t run
twelve miles in a day, he felt like he was wimping out. When I saw him, he came
into see me, and I said, “John, let’s do a cardiac scan,
a CT scan, simple, little, non-invasive, quick, high tech scan of your heart. Your arteries, I’m sure, will be
soft and supple, clean and healthy. So that’s what a normal
cardiac scan should look like: no calcium whatsoever
in these arteries. His is over here; his score was 1,800. Anything above zero is abnormal, anything over 400 is severe; at 1,800,
his arteries are harder than his bones! That can’t be good, and he didn’t have
any other risk factors to speak of. So in fact, people do die
during marathons, but let’s be realistic. If you look at the latest data,
the risk is minuscule: 1 in 100,000 participants. I’ve gotten to be friends
with a guy named Amdy Burfoot. Amdy won the Boston Marathon in 1968. He is currently editor-in-chief and has been a long time editor at large
at Runner’s World Magazine. In conversations we’ve had
in recent months, he has challenged me. “If endurance extreme exercises
are so bad, show me the bodies.” He’s got a good point;
1 in 100,000 is a pretty low risk. But I’m not so worried about that; running is supposed to add years to your life,
and even life to your years. So, could it be shortening
your life expectancy? I’m not worried about
dropping into a risk, I am just trying to do
the right thing, I’m a cardiologist, I’m the business of finding out
the ideal diet and lifestyle. I’m coming to the conclusion
that running marathons and extreme endurance athletics
do not fit into that recipe. So, that being said,
let me be clear about this: there is no single step
you can take in your life to ensure robust health
and remarkable longevity than a habit of daily exercise. This is a study of over 400,000 Chinese
that was just published last year. We published an editorial
along with this afterwards, but they found vigorous exercise,
this is all cause mortality reduction, the more reduction the better,
and this is minutes of daily exercise, so 10, 20, 30 minutes of daily exercise. At 45 or 50, you get a point
of further plateau, so further efforts and time do not appear to convey further improvements
in life expectancy. Down here is light to moderate exercise:
walking, housework, day to day moving around; just get off
your seat and move around. More is better there; it’s not quite
as beneficial as vigorous exercise, but more is better. You can exercise all day it seems, without getting yourself in trouble
if you keep it down. So, one of my heroes, I love evolutionary medicine, I think if you look in the world
of nature and into our deep past, you can find the template for
ideal health, even in our modern world. Charles Darwin was wrong
about one thing though: it’s not the survival of the fittest. No, in fact it’s the survival
of the moderately fit, OK? If the best you can do
is walk one flight of stairs before you have to rest,
things are not looking good. It could be a bumpy ride
in the next few years. On the other hand, if you can dance, lightly swim, or even jog six miles
an hour, that’s a ten minute mile, that’s a pretty comfortable pace, right? Your mortality plummets, and if you,
after warming up on a treadmill, can achieve a speed of seven
to seven and a half miles an hour, you are pretty much bulletproof,
when you look at outcomes. In fact, further attainments
of peak fitness do not translate into further increases in life expectancy. It plateaus out. In fact there’s even a little trend
that it might even go up a little bit. So, the important concept is
that dose makes the poison. It’s true with a lot of things,
and if we could come up with a pill that gave all the benefits
that we get from exercise, I’d be looking for work. In fact, exercise not only cuts
your chance of premature death in half, but it reduces risk of heart disease,
Alzheimer, osteoporosis, depression. It is an amazing drug, but just like
any drug, there is an ideal dose range. If you don’t take enough of it,
you don’t get the benefit. If you take too much of it,
it could be harmful, maybe even fatal. When you’re sitting here, listening,
sitting around like most Americans do, doing nothing, your hearts pumping,
just idling along about a gallon a minute, about four, five liters a minute. If you went out, went for a run
right now, and you ran hard, that would go up
four, five or even sixfold. Five, or six gallons a minute! That is a workout,
your heart is working hard, but that’s what it’s meant
to do, intermittently. You know maybe 5,10, 30 minutes,
and maybe up to 60 minutes but by 60 minutes
something starts happening: the stretch in the chambers
starts overwhelming, the muscle’s ability to adapt, the catecholamine
and adrenaline levels rise, the free radicals blossom,
and it starts burning the heart. It starts searing and inflaming
the inside of your coronary arteries. We’re not really meant for
these sustained levels of exercise, for hours at a time. If you go to a marathon,
and this has been done several times, you take a troponin level
at the end of the marathon, over half of them will have
elevated troponins. What’s a troponin? Troponin is a sacred chemical
to us cardiologists. When we see that a troponin
goes up it means one thing: heart muscle has died. Normally, we hop into action
because that generally means there’s a heart attack going on,
we need to get a vessel open! In this case, these are little micro tears
from the stretching and the searing, and it’s not a big deal if you do it once. These are little micro tears, they heal; a few days later it’s gone,
the heart’s back down to normal size. But if you do this over and over again,
the chambers start dialing up, they get scarred, they get stiff,
they thicken. If you look closely you can see
these little white patches in these veteran
extreme endurance athletes accumulate and for people who have been doing this
for years and decades, their heart becomes older before its time. We’re asking too much of it,
it’s overwhelming the heart’s capacities. This is a fascinating study
done by a cardiologist that I know, and whose son is also a cardiologist. These two were both avid runners
up in Minnesota. They did a study looking at the CT scans,
like I’ve shown you of John’s, looked at a group of marathoners who
have been doing this for at least 25 years at least 25 marathons in that time
compared to secondary controls. You can see here that they had 62%
more plaque despite fewer risk factors. People say, “That can’t be true.” In fact, a German cardiologist
just replicated this study showing a 108 marathoners
with similar findings. Hard to dismiss. Veteran endurance athletes
also have a five fold increase risk of atrial fibrillation,
a dangerous irregular heart rhythm. There is sort of an epidemic
of this going on among runners because we’ve only been doing this
for a few decades and it takes a while for this to develop. Even more worse, when we see this,
as cardiologists, our pupils dilate, our heart rate goes up;
this is ventricular tachycardia, which is a potentially
life threatening rhythm, and we can see this from the scarring in the ventricle
in some endurance athletes. So “Born to Run” is a book
that was published, a non fiction book, published just in 2009. The hero of this story
is a guy named Micah True. He dropped out of American culture, went down to live
with the Tarahumara Indians in the northern part of Mexico
in the Copper canyons. He was an epic runner, legendary for his ability to run
long distances, hundred mile races. The Indians down there nicknamed him
“Caballo Blanco”, the White Horse, for his ability
and his remarkable endurance. So Micah True died, sadly,
at 58 years of age, on a routine 12-mile run, in the wilderness of New Mexico,
in March of this year. When they did the autopsy, they found an enlarged, thickened
heart with scar tissues. The coroner said,
“idiopathic cadiomyopathy.” But I’ve looked at that path report,
and it reads like a description of the pathology we might expect to see
in some extreme endurance athletes. My colleague who wrote
some of these papers with me, Peter McCullough, has coined the term
“pheidippides cardiomyopathy.” That’s what he had. There are a couple papers that are
coming out in the next two months, and we’re publishing
a couple papers as well. They are going to change
the thinking about exercise. This is one of them by Chip Lavie,
one of my colleagues, and maybe my best friend. He down in Oshner Clinic in New Orleans,
and this is a look at 50,000 runners. 52,000 people followed for decades,
on average 15 years but up to 30 years. They compared the non-runners,
about 38,000, to the runners, about 14,000 and what they found was that runners
did live longer, 19% longer, but if we look closer,
you’ll see that the runners, compared to the non-runners,
for the risk of death, the reference is one. If you ran more 25 miles per week,
your benefits went away. You only got 25-27% reduction
in mortality rate. If you ran between 5 and 20 miles
a week, ideally 10-15 miles a week. When we looked at the running speed,
sure enough if you ran too fast, over eight miles per hour,
which is a 7:30 pace, the benefits went away. Now they weren’t worse
than the non-runners, but heck if you’re running that much, you would think you’d get
some health benefits, but no, you have to back off
to a six or seven miles per hour pace, which is about a ten miles per hour jog. Interestingly, how many days a week? Seven days a week if you’re running,
the benefits go away. You need to run fewer days,
two to five ideally. So another study that’ll be published soon
is this one from across the pond. The Copenhagen City Heart Study
compared the non-runners to the runners and found the same thing; the relationship appears much
like that of alcohol. Mortality is lower in people
reporting moderate jogging than in non-joggers
or those undertaking extreme exercise. The moderate joggers got a 44% reduction
in mortality, they live six years longer, but it went away if you over did it. So the truth is that exercise does confer
powerful benefits, and the belief is “more is better”. But we’re learning that more
is not better in this case. One of my good friends Meghan Newcomer
is a triathlete from New York City. She grew up next door,
a dear family friend, she’s one of the top
triathletes in the country. She did ten races last year,
and she is 30. She won half of them. The other half she collapsed from heat exhaustion, dangerous
heat exhaustion near the end of the race. I told Meghan, “Meg, if you want
to be in the real Olympics, which you very well could be,
you just keep hammering away, maybe up your game a bit. But if you want to be alive and well for the 2052 Olympics, 40 years from now, you need to back and way off. Back your pace off and find
some healthier exercise pattern.” So there’s one last study
that I want to tell you about. This is a study from last year
that looked at mice. They hammered these mice,
they ran them to exhaustion, every day, for four months,
and you know what? This replicated those same findings
that we saw in Micah True, and the other findings
that I told you about. But what provides hope to me
is that when they took these guys off their iron mouse training regiments,
their hearts came back down to normal. The fibrosis even melted away,
and their ventricular irritability and atrial fibrillation
tendencies, all gone. Well, I’m a man not a mouse, but here’s hoping
that maybe that works in humans too. Anyway, we’re not meant to run.
We’re not born to run, I should say. We’re born to walk; we need
to be walking more today. We need to be strolling, we need to be moving
our body rather than sitting. Every chance you get, move, and do some high intensity
interval training from time to time. But personally, I’ve found that what I do
now is I’ve shorten my runs up. I go, when I run, I run a one and a half
to, at the most, three miles, but typically about two miles. I take the pace down, and I walk
with my wife, play with the kids, and stop in meadows
or parks, and do some yoga. When I’m swimming, rather
than churning away, I go on my back, and I do some nice gentle backstroke. I watch the clouds sail overhead,
and see the birds soaring in the sky, and I can feel my heart relaxing,
healing, and getting better. So all things in moderation
is not a new concept. This was something that one
of Phidippides’ contemporaries, the father of medicine said,
2,500 years ago, “The right amount
of nourishment and exercise, not too much, not too little,
is the safest way to health.” So I’ve never presented in my 30 years
as a cardiologist such controversial data. But the truth is,
this is a U-shaped curve. The couch potatoes are using this as an excuse to continue
their sedentary behaviour. Then there’s the whole
extreme exercisers, people like me, who don’t want to hear this mess; in fact,
they kind of want to kill the messenger. I’ve been getting a lot
of adverse comments about this research. But you know what I’ve decided? It is that you need to snuggle in to the safety of the middle of
the “U” curve when it comes to exercise. Or when it comes to anything else in life. To me, I’ve decided
that running too fast and too hard is only going to speed up my progress towards the finish line in my life. So I’ve decided to back it off, and hopefully, enjoy
more sunrises and sunsets. Thank you. (Applause)

100 thoughts on “Run for your life! At a comfortable pace, and not too far: James O’Keefe at TEDxUMKC

  1. this made some sense but I don't understand how over an hour of exercise can start to harm you. A long time ago when we had to hunt for our own food we did not have sharp teeth or claws like other animals so we chased the animals for miles and miles until they collapsed. Humans are meant to run. Too much exercise is extreme tho but isn't that supposed to be like over 3 hours of exercise or something crazy like that. I exercise for about 2 hours for 6 days a week but I do not see how that is too much.

  2. OK am in Parallel universe coz few videos back everyone where procrastinating and not doin genough
    In this vid and comments everyone are like hyper hyper WTH,
    you ppl are 55 yr old and run for Marathon – OMG

  3. I smash out 100 mile weeks, wearing a 20kg weighted vest, while coal walking. Maybe I should tone it down.

  4. I run a marathon a month. I train doing 20 to 30 miles a week, not too much. No gym. I just love the marathon.

  5. Late to the party, but interesting take. I would take that into account in my thinking. I'm 34, ran half a dozen marathons to date (never twice in the same year). I ran a 60 miler once. I might do it again.

    I would add a few moderating comments, however.

    – To me, this is not JUST about maximizing your life expectancy, which is somewhat the underlying assumption in his talk. This is a factor in exercise, but not the whole thing.
    – Some of the stats might be heavily correlated and thus somewhat misleading. I'm mostly thinking about the 2 bars graphs about the decrease of heart rate as a function of total run distance per week and also as a function of pace (min/miles). So yes, in both cases those in the last category had numbers barely better than those not running at all. I would argue thought that a lot of the people on the far right of that graph are the same people – those who regularly run 60 miles-weeks probably also tend to run fast, in most cases. However it doesn't mean that ONLY fast paces or ONLY high mileage are bad. It could very well be that 60 miles at low paces is totally fine. Or that high paces with low mileage is also totally fine.
    – The "poster childs" to prove his point (Micah True etc…) are exceptions, more than rules. Those are among the top 1% of the people who can even think about completing a marathon or longer to start with.

    I'm cycling/running to work every day, amount to about 60 min of moderate exercise a day 5x times a week, 70km (~40 miles). So I'm kinda past the top of the return on investment curve according to his stats. Not really intending to slow down or do it less either way.

    However I've recently begun to see marathons/ultras as a thing to do for fun more than performance. I hope I run more of these in the coming years, but I might refrain from training for time or performance and instead just kinda prep for them, run as best as I can but not necessarily to establish any sort of PB & suchs….

  6. One of my best friends who was a season runner who always ran fast and far, died of an heart attack at the age of twenty years old after a run. We found his body in his apartment because we had no more news from him. Apparently and sadly it was not an abnormality. As a pilot I have to do AKG's once a year and when I run a lot they sometimes show abnormal but the doctor shrugs it off saying I'm a runner. But for a while I stick on 5 k's maybe three times a week, after seeing that I will reduce my pace.
    Great information, thank you!

  7. I like jogging, but 6 miles is almost 10km. And doing 10km in an hour, especially in a warm, tropical country like mine, is not so easy. Are the benefits the same if you use a treadmill in an airconditioned gym?

  8. The death of Pheidippides after running the marathon was first mentioned in an 18th century poem. So year, probably didn't happen. This was a guy who ran 135 miles a few weeks before. 26 would be a piece of cake.

  9. Concise conclusion. Walk instead of run. Do yoga. Once in a while do some HIIT. Don't overexert your body and especially your heart. 30 to 50 minutes of running at most. You might regain you health/years of your life if your reduce the intensity of your extreme exercises.

  10. wow, glad i watched this. i hardly go to the gym so when i do- i try to make it count but i just realized i am over doing it on the cardio.

  11. The hardening of the arteries is due to his meat and dairy intake, as this happens because of the cholesterol in your system…cholesterol is ONLY added to your system when wrongly digesting animal products! Yet another 'Medical expert' cleverly leaving out some very important information because it's not the message he's been paid to give! Do your research people, the truth is there. Go Vegan! 🌿

  12. He shouldn't have given the speed at which people should run but the corresponding heartrate… Some will have their heart racing at 7miles/h while others will be hardly beating faster than at rest…

  13. When I finished competing, I cut back on my running and started doing other exercises biking and dance. When I exercised in the morning it wasn't to get ready for my next race, it was just to let my brain run free.
    If you want to open an office on the other side of the side, would be willing to help.

  14. I think humans are tougher than this man gives us credit for, especially when he isnt taking into account dietary choices.

  15. Dr. Gabor Mate has a good definition of addiction. Many exercise enthusiasts seem to take to exercise as an addiction, and this can't be healthy – this is what O'Keefe seems to be saying. Extreme endurance training and racing, in my view, is not 'natural' — that is, it doesn't fit in with our evolutionary biology. Moderate daily activity seems to fit that bill better, perhaps with bouts of intense work (warfare, hunting, etc). A couple of adjustments to O'keefe's presentation are in order. One, Pheidippides is said to have run an epic messenger run into Sparta and back to Athens prior to the battle at Marathon, and then took part in the fighting, THEN ran to Athens to deliver the news of Athenian victory. Who knows what wounds he bore, and how severely dehydrated and depleted he must have been. Second, Darwin's 'survival of the fittest' does not in any way mean 'athletic fitness', but rather any organism's adaptation to an particular environment. An African super athlete of incredible athletic fitness would not fit well in a Polar Arctic environment, and would perish rather quickly, where a modestly athletic Inuit man would likely survive.

  16. Kenneth Cooper's "Aerobics" in 1968 was the first wave in the running craze. He cautioned in his book, the benefits of running are many but if you run more than 3.2 miles you are doing it for reasons other than health

  17. I'm a runner, personally I believe that life isn't all about how long we live. The meanings of life, the adventures in it, the accomplishments are what matter more.

    Distance running gives me that sense of being alive and freedom. I don't need to live so long. What I want is though, to let life blossom before it wilts.

  18. So a healthy life should look something like:
    Eat food. Mostly plants. Not too much.
    Run. Not too fast. Not too much.
    Meh. Ok. this kind of ticks me off because I've never been so happy in my life as when I ran long distances on trails. There's something about it that is good for the mind. After a while the noise in your head ceases and you feel absolutely connected to the world. It's an almost spiritual thing. I think if I could I'd still be running long distances despite these assertions that it's not good for your heart. Because what's more important is not how long you live, but how well you live. If running long brings you joy, go for it despite what this man says.
    Sigh. But as my body doesn't do that anymore, I'm ok with following his advice, even while I regard long distance trail runners with envy.

  19. Stressing the body is never good, hopefully now "science" backs it up, people will "learn", from the "experts". Thankfully my body told me awhile back and I listened. No science/experts required.

  20. he forget about nutrition. you can be healthy while running as long your eating and recovery optimally

  21. 8 miles per hour = 12.8 km per hour = 4:41 pace (km)

    5 miles per hour = 8 km per hour = 7:30 pace (km)

    The ideal pace is:
    6.25 miles per hour = 10 km per hour = 6:00 pace (km)

    The ideal duration according to this talk is:
    Run less than 15 miles per week/3 miles per day with 2 days off per week.
    Run less than 24 km per week/4.8 km per day with 2 days off per week.

  22. Maybe the problem is not jogging for those sportsmen but the medications that they consume to increase their endurance.

  23. I agree too much is harmful but i dont agree humans were not meant to run. The human body evolved as the ultimate machine to run not just walk. How did our ancestors ever escape predators that wanted to eat us.

  24. I just go for five twenty minute walks a day to clear the mind. If I feel like it, I'll turn a slot into a power walk or a five minute jog. The key is to keep it enjoyable and something to look forward to rather than a chore.

  25. Loves evolutionary medicine, doesn't understand that survival of the fittest means survival of those that reproduce the most. Fitness is evolutionary biology does not equal "fitness" as we use it in terms of exercize etc.

  26. We are all addicted to at least one thing. Many addictions are harmful directly or through side-effects. Of course it would be better to have no addictions, but that is unrealistic. If I stopped compulsive exercise to cope with stress, anxiety, etc, it would be replaced with something potentially more harmful, such as alcohol, cigarettes, food, and/or anti-depressants. Pick your poison. Mine is exercise.

  27. 30 minutes brisk walking daily..AND GO TO THE GYM !! three times a week . Eat clean and you will live long and healthy..

  28. Cardiologist….is the food you eat….it has always been the food….must Dr have no clue about nutrition….all animal protein contains cholesterol…..all plant based greens foods contains no cholesterol but lots of NO…nitric oxides….it opens your heart valves….a habit of daily exercise….and good nutrition meaning….no process foods, no oils ….all oils they are just liquid fats…no animal protein…no dairy….contains lots of Casein….is what makes small Calf grow to 600 lbs in 6 month…..bottom line the combination of excellent nutrition and exercise is what is going to keep your heart healthy….from my heart to yours……

  29. The inside lining of your arteries can't repair themselves like muscles can, and it only gets worse with age. Extreme exercise keeps your blood pressure through the roof – causing inflammation/damage. Cause too much damage, and you can't repair/or the body will repair it with plaque. There is a target rate that needs to be hit and not exceeded, and not for an excessive amount of time.

  30. Excellent very informative video!! ❤👍

    Vast majority of long distance runners are very pale and weak looking people. This video explains why that is.

  31. My father was told this 17 years ago in yemen and finally he died for hart problem he use to run so fast every morning he is gone now almost 2 years

  32. This doesn't surprise me at all, the heart is a muscle. To much of anything is going to have negative side effects.

  33. Wow. This blew my mind. Completely contrary to what conventional wisdom has fed us for the last 30 years. Thank you for sharing.

  34. The story of the marathon messenger was wrong, he traveled over 350 miles in less than 3 days with almost no food and no water or sleep. This caused his death. Not running 26 miles which was routine for a messenger

  35. This opened my eyes a bit. The word I'll take from this is – Moderation! Life in moderation is healthier. Being efficient and optimal is more important than overdoing things. From now on I'll eat moderately, exercise adequately, and enjoy work. Thank you!!

  36. Just for information, the longevity of the first 20 elite athlete to run 1 mile in less than 4 min, 18 of them lived for 80–88 years, that exceeds life expectancy by an average more than 10 years.

  37. Misconception: efficient Triathlon Training actually is moderate in pace and distance most of the time

  38. I couldn't get myself to watch every minute, so perhaps I missed this, but an obvious point is this: if you're a frequent marathoner, running 40+ miles a week, then spend the money to see if is doing any damage to your heart. If it's not, continue on. If it is, then modify your lifestyle.

  39. The hearts of anerobic athletes (rowers in particular) are also being studied. The heart remodels itself at the cellular level.

  40. A doctor was having a lecture. Basically, hdm showed the audience 2 types of actual human livers. About the same age, one is healthy, the other is not. The unhealthy one belonged to a person who probably drank lots of alcohol, smoked and had too much of the bad stuff. The other is almost flawless, showed very little no signs of abuse, epic example of a perfect liver. Out of curiousity, a person from the audience asked. If that is a healthy liver, then how did its owner died? The doctor replied, "plane crash."

  41. As mentioned below, "fit" means fit to the ENVIRONMENT, not workout fit. Come on, dude. Makes you look misinformed, despite good points made. :

  42. the walking africans at 17:55 were photoshopped to a northern view of pier 66 on Alaskan Way in Seattle. I don't know why, maybe some hidden message there 😉

  43. This was painful to watch…but I am taken it all in…so I can still run long runs but not at a hard pace …somewhere around a 12, 13 min pace ?

  44. when people speak well and project their voice and then suddenly at the end of a sentence they lower their voice, don't enunciate an quickly spea the last few words….not in every sentence but often and then they speak loudly again and enunciate again…I have found that is diagnostic of losing energy and then the listener can't get the mumbling part of the speech. listen in….he does this…not as much as some but there is a lowering of the voice at the end of some sentences…..words we cannot even hear. think about it

  45. Dear Dr. O'Keefe,
    Good talk and maybe you've learned by now that Darwin didn't say "survival of the fittest" that was Herbert Spencer. Darwin's studies revolved around “survival of the most suitable," i.e. those that can or may adapt to their environment stand a better chance of feeding and multiplying. I'm sure you are aware of one of his most renowned examples in his finch beak adaptation discoveries.

  46. It's common sense guys. Inflammation is bad for your immune system and cardiovascular system. If you're an obsessive who has to run 12 miles a day, you may 'feel' better, but you're probably paying a price long term for those endorphins.

  47. The Earth and everything on it is in fine balance, including the mortal bodies that walk upon it. This body too needs to be kept in balance.
    Eat balanced, Work balanced, Play balanced, Exercised balanced – everything should be done within sensible limits.
    Take the most neutral things around, Air and Water. If you drink too much water it will cause your brain to swell and kill you. If you inhale too much pure oxygen it will oxidize your cells and slowly kill you. The air we breathe is 70% nitrogen, 30% oxygen – if there becomes too much oxygen in this mixture our atmosphere environment will combust. Even our precious life giving air is both a poison and a fire propellant when not kept in balance.

  48. I have to wonder did we really evolve to run 26 miles a day. I would imagine that most hunts were a few miles away at most as the carcass had to be moved back to the tribe. The pace to go on the hunt would have to be one that the youngest hunters and very old hunters could sustain. The hope is that it would be at a pace where the folks running could enjoy it

  49. It really annoys me when people either deliberately or ignorantly misquote Darwin.  It's not about cardiovascular fitness, it's about 'aptness" or suitability for the environment.  A clever man such as James should know this.  The content of the talk is otherwise very sensible.

  50. Stop saying "alcohol is good in moderation". This powerful drug is never good, and saying in moderation opens a door to drink and hurt yourself and others around you.

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